The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice

The Oxford Handbook of Crime and Criminal Justice
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Prisons may serve as detention centers for prisoners after trial. For containment of the accused, jails are used. Early prisons were used primarily to sequester criminals and little thought was given to living conditions within their walls. In America, the Quaker movement is commonly credited with establishing the idea that prisons should be used to reform criminals.

This can also be seen as a critical moment in the debate regarding the purpose of punishment. Punishment in the form of prison time may serve a variety of purposes. First, and most obviously, the incarceration of criminals removes them from the general population and inhibits their ability to perpetrate further crimes. A new goal of prison punishments is to offer criminals a chance to be rehabilitated. Many modern prisons offer schooling or job training to prisoners as a chance to learn a vocation and thereby earn a legitimate living when they are returned to society.

Religious institutions also have a presence in many prisons, with the goal of teaching ethics and instilling a sense of morality in the prisoners.

Julian Roberts

If a prisoner is released before his time is served, he is released as a parole. This means that they are released, but the restrictions are greater than that of someone on probation. There are numerous other forms of punishment which are commonly used in conjunction with or in place of prison terms. Monetary fines are one of the oldest forms of punishment still used today. These fines may be paid to the state or to the victims as a form of reparation. Probation and house arrest are also sanctions which seek to limit a person's mobility and his or her opportunities to commit crimes without actually placing them in a prison setting.

Furthermore, many jurisdictions may require some form of public or community service as a form of reparations for lesser offenses. In Corrections, the Department ensures court-ordered, pre-sentence chemical dependency assessments, related Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative specific examinations and treatment will occur for offenders sentenced to Drug Offender Sentencing Alternative in compliance with RCW 9. Execution or capital punishment is still used around the world. Its use is one of the most heavily debated aspects of the criminal justice system. Some societies are willing to use executions as a form of political control, or for relatively minor misdeeds.

Other societies reserve execution for only the most sinister and brutal offenses. Others still have discontinued the practice entirely, believing the use of execution to be excessively cruel. The functional study of criminal justice is distinct from criminology , which involves the study of crime as a social phenomenon, causes of crime, criminal behavior, and other aspects of crime. It emerged as an academic discipline in the s, beginning with Berkeley police chief August Vollmer who established a criminal justice program at the University of California, Berkeley in Wilson , who led efforts to professionalize policing and reduce corruption.

Throughout the s and s, crime rates soared and social issues took center stage in the public eye.

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A number of new laws and studies focused federal resources on researching new approaches to crime control. The Warren Court the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren , issued a series of rulings which redefined citizen's rights and substantially altered the powers and responsibilities of police and the courts.

15. Crime and the Law

The Civil Rights Era offered significant legal and ethical challenges to the status quo. The LEAA provided grants for criminology research, focusing on social aspects of crime. By the s, there were academic programs in criminology and criminal justice in the United States. Over time, scholars of criminal justice began to include criminology , sociology , and psychology , among others, to provide a more comprehensive view of the criminal justice system and the root causes of crime. Criminal justice studies now combine the practical and technical policing skills with a study of social deviance as a whole.

Criminal justice degree programs at four-year institutions typically include coursework in statistics, methods of research, criminal justice, policing, U. S court systems, criminal courts, corrections, community corrections, criminal procedure, criminal law, victimology, juvenile justice, and a variety of special topics. A number of universities offer a Bachelor of Criminal Justice. The modern criminal justice system has evolved since ancient times, with new forms of punishment , added rights for offenders and victims, and policing reforms.

These developments have reflected changing customs , political ideals, and economic conditions. In ancient times through the Middle Ages, exile was a common form of punishment. During the Middle Ages , payment to the victim or the victim's family , known as wergild , was another common punishment, including for violent crimes.

For those who could not afford to buy their way out of punishment, harsh penalties included various forms of corporal punishment. These included mutilation , branding , and flogging , as well as execution. Though a prison, Le Stinche , existed as early as the 14th century in Florence, Italy , [16] incarceration was not widely used until the 19th century. Correctional reform in the United States was first initiated by William Penn , towards the end of the 17th century. For a time, Pennsylvania 's criminal code was revised to forbid torture and other forms of cruel punishment, with jails and prisons replacing corporal punishment.

These reforms were reverted, upon Penn's death in Under pressure from a group of Quakers , these reforms were revived in Pennsylvania toward the end of the 18th century, and led to a marked drop in Pennsylvania's crime rate. Patrick Colquhoun , Henry Fielding and others led significant reforms during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The first official criminal justice system was created by the British during the American Revolution , as they created the system to primarily justify hangings to the citizens of their government.

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These individuals were in charge of determining if the Crown or also known as the British government had enough evidence to hang an individual for a crime. The British would not always hang an individual for committing a crime, there would also be trials for punishments that would be carried out by cleaning ships, prison ships, or be locked up on British mainland.

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The Warren Court the Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren , issued a series of rulings which redefined citizen's rights and substantially altered the powers and responsibilities of police and the courts. Main article: Corrections. Sentencing Andrew Ashworth and Julian V. These reforms were reverted, upon Penn's death in Sentencing the Multiple Count Offender.

During the American revolution the primary type of punishment was to be hanged or sent to prison ships such as the notorious HMS Jersey. After the American revolution the British-based criminal justice system was then adopted by other developing nations Such as the United States. The first modern police force is commonly said to be the Metropolitan Police in London , established in by Sir Robert Peel. Early on, police were not respected by the community, as corruption was rampant. Wilson , police began to professionalize, adopt new technologies, and place emphasis on training and professional qualifications of new hires.

Despite such reforms, police agencies were led by highly autocratic leaders, and there remained a lack of respect between police and the community. Following urban unrest in the s, police placed more emphasis on community relations, enacted reforms such as increased diversity in hiring, and many police agencies adopted community policing strategies. In the s, CompStat was developed by the New York Police Department as an information-based system for tracking and mapping crime patterns and trends, and holding police accountable for dealing with crime problems.

CompStat has since been replicated in police departments across the United States and around the world, with problem-oriented policing , intelligence-led policing , and other information-led policing strategies also adopted. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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For the film, see Criminal Justice film. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Volume 54 , Issue 5 December Pages Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure. Previous Figure Next Figure.

Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Old Password. New Password. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. Returning user. Since no system is perfect, it is inevitable that this principle will sometimes be violated, but we ought to strive for a system that allows us to consistently approximate this ideal. However, if no one were morally responsible for anything, all punishments would be undeserved, and the criminal justice system difficult to ethically justify.

Some philosophers and scientists do argue for the non-existence of moral responsibility and desert, roughly along the following lines: Whether an offender was morally responsible for what she did depends on how her action was caused. If it was caused by events beyond her control, she lacks moral responsibility for it. Therefore, she does not deserve to be punished if her crime were caused by, e. However, all crimes are ultimately caused by events beyond the offender's control e. Therefore, no one ever deserves to be punished Pereboom, ; Strawson, ; Greene and Cohen, ; Harris, If these philosophers are right, any system for dealing with criminals resembling the current one might be ethically unjustifiable.

However, this whole argument fails if we deny the initial premise that moral responsibility for an action depends on how it was caused. Some philosophers of law and legal theorists do deny that premise; Morse and Moore argue that the law as it stands permits punishing offenders when they are capable of making choices for reasons.